Arabic Translators International _ الجمعية الدولية لمترجمي العربية

 


العودة   Arabic Translators International _ الجمعية الدولية لمترجمي العربية > أخلاقيات الترجمة Ethics of Translation > القوانين المنظمة لمهنة الترجمة Codes of Translation Profession

القوانين المنظمة لمهنة الترجمة Codes of Translation Profession القوانين والقواعد والأخلاقيات واللوائح العمول بها والمنظمة لعمل المترجم ومهنة الترجمة عموماً.

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قديم 06-06-2006, 08:35 AM
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تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
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Nairobi Recommendation

The "Recommendation on the legal protection of Translators and Translations and the practical means to improve the Status of Translators" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO at its Nineteenth Session in Nairobi on November 22, 1976.
This was the first document published by an international organization to throw light on the profession of translator and to confront the peoples of all nations with the main problems of this profession. It drew attention to a state of affairs urgently demanding improvement, not only in the interests of the translating profession but also in the interests of international understanding, the spread of culture and the furtherance of science, technical progress and economic growth.

RECOMMENDATION ON THE LEGAL PROTECTION OF TRANSLATORS AND TRANSLATIONS AND THE PRACTICAL MEANS TO IMPROVE THE STATUS OF TRANSLATORS

The General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, meeting in Nairobi from 26 October to 30 November 1976, at its nineteenth session:
Considering
that translation promotes understanding between peoples and co-operation among nations by facilitating the dissemination of literary and scientific works, including technical works, across linguistic frontiers and the interchange of ideas,
Noting
the extremely important role played by translators and translations in international exchanges in culture, art and science, particularly in the case of works written or translated in less widely spoken languages,
Recognizing
that the protection of translators is indispensable in order to ensure translations of the quality needed for them to fulfil effectively their role in the service of culture and development,
Recalling
that, if the principles of this protection are already contained in the Universal Copyright Convention, while the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and a number of national laws of Member States also contain specific provisions concerning such protection, the practical application of these principles and provisions is not always adequate,
Being of the opinion
that if, in many countries with respect to copyright, translators and translations enjoy a protection which resembles the protection granted to authors and to literary and scientific works, including technical works, the adoption of measures of an essentially practical nature, assimilating translators to authors and specific to the translating profession, is nevertheless justified to ameliorate the effective application of existing laws,
Having decided,
at its eighteenth session, that the protection of translators should be the subject of a recommendation to Member States within the meaning of Article IV, paragraph 4, of the Constitution,
Adopts, this twenty-second day of November 1976, the present Recommendation.
The General Conference recommends that Member States apply the following provisions concerning the protection of translators and translations by taking whatever legislative or other steps may be required, in conformity with the constitutional provisions and institutional practice of each State, to give effect, within their respective territories, to the principles and standards set forth in this Recommendation.
The General Conference recommends that Member States bring this Recommendation to the attention of authorities, departments or bodies responsible for matters relating to the moral and material interests of translators and to the protection of translations, of the various organizations or associations representing or promoting the interests of translators, and of publishers, managers of theatres, broadcasters and other users and interested parties.
The General Conference recommends that Member States submit to the Organization, at such times and in such form as shall be determined by the General Conference, reports on the action taken by them to give effect to this Recommendation.
I. DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE OF APPLICATION
1.For purposes of this Recommendation:
(a) the term "translation" denotes the transposition of a literary or scientific work, including technical work, from one language into another language, whether or not the initial work, or the translation, is intended for publication in book, magazine, periodical, or other form, or for performance in the theatre, in a film, on radio or television, or in any other media;
(b) the term "translator" denotes translators of literary or scientific works, including technical works;
(c) the term "users" denotes the persons or legal entities for which a translation is made.
2. This Recommendation applies to all translators regardless of:
(a) the legal status applicable to them as:
(i) independent translators; or
(ii)salaried translators;
(b) the discipline to which the work translated belongs;
(c) the full-time or part-time nature of their position as translators.
II. GENERAL LEGAL POSITION OF TRANSLATORS
3. Member States should accord to translators, in respect of their translations, the protection accorded to authors under the provisions of the international copyright conventions to which they are party and/or under their national laws, but without prejudice to the rights of the authors of the original works translated.
III. MEASURES TO ENSURE THE APPLICATION IN PRACTICE OF PROTECTION AFFORDED TRANSLATORS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND IN NATIONAL LAWS RELATING TO COPYRIGHT
4. It is desirable that a written agreement be concluded between a translator and the user.
5. As a general rule, a contract governing relations between a translator and a user, as well as where appropriate any other legal instrument governing such relations, should:
(a) accord an equitable remuneration to the translator whatever his or her legal status;
(b) at least when the translator is not working as a salaried translator, remunerate him or her in proportion to the proceeds of the sale or use of the translation with payment of an advance, the said advance being retained by the translator whatever the proceeds may be; or by the payment of a sum calculated in conformity with another system of remuneration independent of sales where it is provided for or permitted by national legislation; or by the payment of an equitable lump sum which could be made where payment on a proportional basis proves insufficient or inapplicable; the appropriate method of payment should be chosen taking into account the legal system of the country concerned and where applicable the type of original work translated;
(c) make provision, when appropriate, for a supplementary payment should the use made of the translation go beyond the limitations specified in the contract;
(d) specify that the authorizations granted by the translator are limited to the rights expressly mentioned, this provision applying to possible new editions;
(e) stipulate that in the event that the translator has not obtained any necessary authorization, it is the user who is responsible for obtaining such authorization;
(f) stipulate that the translator guarantees the user uncontested enjoyment of all the rights granted and undertakes to refrain from any action likely to compromise the legitimate interests of the user and, when appropriate, to observe the rule of professional secrecy;
(g) stipulate that, subject to the prerogatives of the author of the original work translated, no changes shall be made in the text of a translation intended for publication without seeking the prior agreement of the translator;
(h) assure the translator and his translation similar publicity, proportionately to that which authors are generally given, in particular, the name of the author of the translation should appear in a prominent place on all published copies of the translation, on theatre bills, in announcements made in connexion with radio or television broadcasts, in the credit titles of films and in any other promotional material;
(i) provide that the user ensure that the translation bear such notices as are necessary to comply with copyright formalities in those countries where it might reasonably be expected to be used;
(j) provide for the resolution of any conflicts which may arise, particularly with respect to the quality of the translation, so far as possible, by means of arbitration or in accordance with procedures laid down by national legislation or by any other appropriate means of dispute settlement which on the one hand is such as to guarantee impartiality and on the other hand is easily accessible and inexpensive;
(k) mention the languages from and into which the translator will translate and without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 1 (a), further specify expressly the translator's possible use as an interpreter.
6. In order to facilitate the implementation of the measures recommended in paragraphs 4, 5 and 14, Member States should, without prejudice to the translator's freedom to enter into an individual contract, encourage the parties concerned, in particular the professional organizations of translators and other organizations or associations representing them, on the one hand, and the representatives of users, on the other, to adopt model contracts or to conclude collective agreements based on the measures suggested in this Recommendation and making due allowance for all situations likely to arise by reason either of the translator or of the nature of the translation.
7. Member States should also promote measures to ensure effective representation of translators and to encourage the creation and development of professional organizations of translators and other organizations or associations representing them, to define the rules and duties which should govern the exercise of the profession, to defend the moral and material interests of translators and to facilitate linguistic, cultural, scientific and technical exchanges among translators and between translators and the authors of works to be translated. To this end, such organizations or associations might undertake, where national law permits, in particular, the following specific activities:
(a) promote the adoption of standards governing the translating profession; such standards should stipulate in particular that the translator has a duty to provide a translation of high quality from both the linguistic and stylistic points of view and to guarantee that the translation will be a faithful rendering of the original;
(b) study the bases for remuneration acceptable to translators and users;
(c) set up procedures to assist in the settlement of disputes arising in connexion with the quality of translations;
(d) advise translators in their negotiations with users and co-operate with other interested parties in establishing model contracts relating to translation;
(e) endeavour to arrange for translators individually or collectively, and in accordance with national laws or any collective agreements which may be applicable on this subject, to benefit with authors from funds received from either private or public sources;
(f) provide for exchanges of information on matters of interest to translators by the publication of information bulletins, the organization of meetings or by other appropriate means;
(g) promote the assimilation of translators, from the point of view of social benefits and taxation, to authors of literary or scientific works, including technical works;
(h) promote the establishment and development of specialized programmes for the training of translators;
(i) co-operate with other national, regional or international bodies working to promote the interests of translators, and with any national or regional copyright information centres set up to assist in the clearance of rights in works protected by copyright, as well as with the Unesco International Copyright Information Centre;
(j) maintain close contacts with users, as well as with their representatives or professional organizations or associations, in order to defend the interests of translators; and negotiate collective agreements with such representatives or organizations or associations where deemed advantageous;
(k) contribute generally to the development of the translating profession.
8. Without prejudice to paragraph 7, membership of professional organizations or associations which represent translators should not, however, be a necessary condition for protection, since the provisions of this Recommendation should apply to all translators, whether or not they are members of such organizations or associations.
IV. SOCIAL AND FISCAL SITUATION OF TRANSLATORS
9. Translators working as independent writers, whether or not they are paid by royalties, should benefit in practice from any social insurance schemes relating to retirement, illness, family allowances, etc., and from any taxation arrangements, generally applicable to the authors of literary or scientific works, including technical works.
10. Salaried translators should be treated on the same basis as other salaried professional staff and benefit accordingly from the social schemes provided for them. In this respect, professional statutes, collective agreements and contracts of employment based thereon should mention expressly the class of translators of scientific and technical texts, so that their status as translators may be recognized, particularly with respect to their professional classification.
V. TRAINING AND WORKING CONDITIONS OF TRANSLATORS
11. Member States should recognize in principle that translation is an independent discipline requiring an education distinct from exclusively language teaching and that this discipline requires special training. Member States should encourage the establishment of writing programmes for translators, especially in connexion with translators' professional organizations or associations, universities or other educational institutions, and the organization of seminars or workshops. It should also be recognized that it is useful for translators to be able to benefit from continuing education courses.
12. Member States should consider organizing terminology centres which might be encouraged to undertake the following activities:
(a) communicating to translators current information concerning terminology required by them in the general course of their work;
(b) collaborating closely with terminology centres throughout the world with a view to standardizing and developing the internationalization of scientific and technical terminology so as to facilitate the task of translators.
13. In association with professional organizations or associations and other interested parties, Member States should facilitate exchanges of translators between different countries, so as to allow them to improve their knowledge of the language from which they work and of the socio-cultural context in which the works to be translated by them are written.
14. With a view to improving the quality of translations, the following principles and practical measures should be expressly recognized in professional statutes mentioned under sub-paragraph 7 (a) and in any other written agreements between the translators and the users:
(a) translators should be given a reasonable period of time to accomplish their work;
(b) any documents and information necessary for the understanding of the text to be translated and the drafting of the translation should, so far as possible, be made available to translators;
(c) as a general rule, a translation should be made from the original work, recourse being had to retranslation only where absolutely necessary;
(d) a translator should, as far as possible, translate into his own mother tongue or into a language of which he or she has a mastery equal to that of his or her mother tongue.
VI. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
15. The principles and norms set forth in this Recommendation may be adapted by developing countries in any way deemed necessary to help them meet their requirements, and in the light of the special provisions for the benefit of developing countries introduced in the Universal Copyright Convention as revised at Paris on 24 July 1971 and the Paris Act (1971) of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.
VII. FINAL PROVISION
16. Where translators and translations enjoy a level of protection which is, in certain respects, more favourable than that provided for in this Recommendation, its provisions should not be invoked to diminish the protection already acquired.

http://www.fit-ift.org/en/nairo-e.php





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  #2  
قديم 06-10-2006, 12:04 PM
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The Translator's Charter
(approved by the Congress at Dubrovnik in 1963,
and amended in Oslo on July 9, 1994)
• General obligations of the translator
• Rights of the translator
• Economic and social position of the translator
• Translators' societies and unions
• National organizations and the International Federation of Translators
________________________________________
The International Federation of Translators
noting
that translation has established itself as a permanent,universal and necessary activity in the world of today; that by making intellectual and material exchanges possible among nations it enriches their life and contributes to a better understanding amongst men;
that in spite of the various circumstances under which it is practised translation must now be recognized as a distinct and autonomous profession; and
desiring
to lay down, as a formal document, certain general principles inseparably connected with the profession of translating, particularly for the purpose of
- stressing the social function of translation,
- laying down the rights and duties of translators,
- laying the basis of a translator's code of ethics,
- improving the economic conditions and social climate in which the translator carries out his activity, and
- recommending certain lines of conduct for translators and their professional organizations, and to contribute in this way to the recognition of translation as a distinct and autonomous profession,
announces the text of a charter proposed to serve as guiding principles for the exercise of the profession of translator.
Section I
GENERAL OBLIGATIONS OF THE TRANSLATOR
1. Translation, being an intellectual activity, the object of which is the transfer of literary, scientific and technical texts from one language into another, imposes on those who practise it specific obligations inherent in its very nature.
2. A translation shall always be made on the sole responsibility of the translator, whatever the character of the relationship of contract which binds him/her to the user.
3. The translator shall refuse to give to a text an interpretation of which he/she does not approve, or which would be contrary to the obligations of his/her profession.
4. Every translation shall be faithful and render exactly the idea and form of the original – this fidelity constituting both a moral and legal obligation for the translator.
5. A faithful translation, however, should not be confused with a literal translation, the fidelity of a translation not excluding an adaptation to make the form, the atmosphere and deeper meaning of the work felt in another language and country.
6. The translator shall possess a sound knowledge of the language from which he/she translates and should, in particular, be a master of that into which he/she translates.
7. He/she must likewise have a broad general knowledge and know sufficiently well the subject matter of the translation and refrain from undertaking a translation in a field beyond his competence.
8. The translator shall refrain from any unfair competition in carrying out his profession; in particular, he/she shall strive for equitable remuneration and not accept any fee below that which may be fixed by law and regulations.
9. In general, he/she shall neither seek nor accept work under conditions humiliating to himself/herself or his/her profession.
10. The translator shall respect the legitimate interests of the user by treating as a professional secret any information which may come into his/her possession as a result of the translation entrusted to him/her.
11. Being a "secondary" author, the translator is required to accept special obligations with respect to the author of the original work.
12. He/she must obtain from the author of the original work or from the user authorization to translate a work, and must furthermore respect all other rights vested in the author.
Section II
RIGHTS OF THE TRANSLATOR
13. Every translator shall enjoy all the rights with respect to the translation he/she has made, which the country where he/she exercises his/her activities grants to other intellectual workers.
14. A translation, being a creation of the intellect, shall enjoy the legal protection accorded to such works.
15. The translator is therefore the holder of copyright in his/her translation and consequently has the same privileges as the author of the original work.
16. The translator shall thus enjoy, with respect to his/her translation, all the moral rights of succession conferred by his/her authorship.
17. He/she shall consequently enjoy during his/her lifetime the right to recognition of his/her authorship of the translation, from which it follows, inter alia, that
(a) his/her name shall be mentioned clearly and unambiguously whenever his/her translation is used publicly;
(b) he/she shall be entitled to oppose any distortion, mutilation or other modification of his/her translation;
(c) publishers and other users of his/her translation shall not make changes therein without the translator's prior consent;
(d) he/she shall be entitled to prohibit any improper use of his/her translation and, in general, to resist any attack upon it that is prejudicial to his/her honour or reputation.
18. Furthermore, the exclusive right to authorize the publication, presentation, broadcasting, re-translation, adaptation, modification or other rendering of his/her translation, and, in general, the right to use his/her translation in any form shall remain with the translator.
19. For every public use of his/her translation the translator shall be entitled to remuneration at a rate fixed by contract or law.
Section III
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POSITION OF THE TRANSLATOR
20. The translator must be assured of living conditions enabling him/her to carry out with efficiency and dignity the social task conferred on him/her.
21. The translator shall have a share in the success of his/her work and shall, in particular, be entitled to remuneration proportional to the commercial proceeds from the work he/she has translated.
22. It must be recognized that translation can also arise in the form of commissioned work and acquire as such rights to remuneration independent of commercial profits accruing from the work translated.
23. The translating profession, like other professions, shall enjoy in every country a protection equal to that afforded to other professions in that country, by collective agreements, standard contracts, etc.
24. Translators in every country shall enjoy the advantages granted to intellectual workers, and particularly of all social insurance schemes, such as old-age pensions, health insurance, unemployment benefits and family allowances.
Section IV
TRANSLATORS' SOCIETIES AND UNIONS
25. In common with members of other professions, translators shall enjoy the right to form professional societies or unions.
26. In addition to defending the moral and material interests of translators, these organizations shall have the task of ensuring improvement in standards of translation and of dealing with all other matters concerning translation.
27. They shall exert their influence on public authorities in the preparation and introduction of legal measures and regulations concerning the profession.
28. They shall strive to maintain permanent relations with organizations which are users of translations (publishers' associations, industrial and commercial enterprises, public and private authorities, the Press, etc.) for the purpose of studying and finding solutions to their common problems.
29. In watching over the quality of all works translated in their countries, they shall keep in touch with cultural organizations, societies of authors, national sections of the Pen Club, literary critics, learned societies, universities, and technical and scientific research institutes.
30. They shall be competent to act as arbiters and experts in all disputes arising between translators and users of translations.
31. They shall have the right to give advice on the training and recruitment of translators, and to co-operate with specialized organizations and universities in the pursuit of these aims.
32. They shall endeavour to collect information of interest to the profession from all sources and to place it at the disposal of translators in the form of libraries, files, journals and bulletins, for which purpose they shall establish theoretical and practical information services, and organize seminars and meetings.
Section V
NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF TRANSLATORS
33. Where several groups of translators exist in a country, organized either on a regional basis or into different categories, it will be desirable for these groups to co-ordinate their activities in a central national organization, at the same time preserving their identity.
34. In countries where societies or unions of translators are not yet in existence, it is suggested that translators should join forces to bring about the necessary establishment of such an organization, in accordance with the relevant legal requirements of their country.
35. To ensure the attainment of their aims at world level by common effort, national translators' organizations are called upon to unite in the Fédération internationale des traducteurs (International Federation of Translators [FIT]).
36. Translators shall join their national organizations of their own free will and the same must apply to the societies with respect to their association with the International Federation of Translators.
37. The International Federation of Translators shall defend the material and moral rights of translators at the international level, keep in touch with progress in theoretical and practical matters relating to translation, and endeavour to contribute to the spread of civilization throughout the world.
38. The International Federation of Translators shall attain these objectives by representing translators at the international level, particularly through relations with governmental, non-governmental and supranational organizations, by taking part in meetings likely to be of interest to translators and translation at the international level, by publishing works, and by organizing or arranging for the organization of congresses at which questions concerning translation or translators may be examined.
39. In general the International Federation of Translators shall extend the activities of the societies of every country at the international level, co-ordinate their efforts and define its common policy.
40. The national societies and the International Federation of Translators, their central organization, derive the strength necessary for the pursuit of their professional objectives from the feeling of solidarity existing among translators and from the dignity of translation which contributes to better understanding among nations and to the spread of culture throughout the world.

http://www.fit-ift.org/en/charter.php#oblig



رد مع اقتباس
  #3  
قديم 06-10-2006, 12:06 PM
الصورة الرمزية soubiri
soubiri soubiri غير متواجد حالياً
أعضاء رسميون
 
تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
المشاركات: 1,459
افتراضي توصيات بشأن مهنة الترجمة

معادة

The Translator's Charter

(approved by the Congress at Dubrovnik in 1963,
and amended in Oslo on July 9, 1994)
• General obligations of the translator
• Rights of the translator
• Economic and social position of the translator
• Translators' societies and unions
• National organizations and the International Federation of Translators
________________________________________
The International Federation of Translators
noting
that translation has established itself as a permanent,universal and necessary activity in the world of today; that by making intellectual and material exchanges possible among nations it enriches their life and contributes to a better understanding amongst men;
that in spite of the various circumstances under which it is practised translation must now be recognized as a distinct and autonomous profession; and
desiring
to lay down, as a formal document, certain general principles inseparably connected with the profession of translating, particularly for the purpose of
- stressing the social function of translation,
- laying down the rights and duties of translators,
- laying the basis of a translator's code of ethics,
- improving the economic conditions and social climate in which the translator carries out his activity, and
- recommending certain lines of conduct for translators and their professional organizations, and to contribute in this way to the recognition of translation as a distinct and autonomous profession,
announces the text of a charter proposed to serve as guiding principles for the exercise of the profession of translator.
Section I
GENERAL OBLIGATIONS OF THE TRANSLATOR
1. Translation, being an intellectual activity, the object of which is the transfer of literary, scientific and technical texts from one language into another, imposes on those who practise it specific obligations inherent in its very nature.
2. A translation shall always be made on the sole responsibility of the translator, whatever the character of the relationship of contract which binds him/her to the user.
3. The translator shall refuse to give to a text an interpretation of which he/she does not approve, or which would be contrary to the obligations of his/her profession.
4. Every translation shall be faithful and render exactly the idea and form of the original – this fidelity constituting both a moral and legal obligation for the translator.
5. A faithful translation, however, should not be confused with a literal translation, the fidelity of a translation not excluding an adaptation to make the form, the atmosphere and deeper meaning of the work felt in another language and country.
6. The translator shall possess a sound knowledge of the language from which he/she translates and should, in particular, be a master of that into which he/she translates.
7. He/she must likewise have a broad general knowledge and know sufficiently well the subject matter of the translation and refrain from undertaking a translation in a field beyond his competence.
8. The translator shall refrain from any unfair competition in carrying out his profession; in particular, he/she shall strive for equitable remuneration and not accept any fee below that which may be fixed by law and regulations.
9. In general, he/she shall neither seek nor accept work under conditions humiliating to himself/herself or his/her profession.
10. The translator shall respect the legitimate interests of the user by treating as a professional secret any information which may come into his/her possession as a result of the translation entrusted to him/her.
11. Being a "secondary" author, the translator is required to accept special obligations with respect to the author of the original work.
12. He/she must obtain from the author of the original work or from the user authorization to translate a work, and must furthermore respect all other rights vested in the author.
Section II
RIGHTS OF THE TRANSLATOR
13. Every translator shall enjoy all the rights with respect to the translation he/she has made, which the country where he/she exercises his/her activities grants to other intellectual workers.
14. A translation, being a creation of the intellect, shall enjoy the legal protection accorded to such works.
15. The translator is therefore the holder of copyright in his/her translation and consequently has the same privileges as the author of the original work.
16. The translator shall thus enjoy, with respect to his/her translation, all the moral rights of succession conferred by his/her authorship.
17. He/she shall consequently enjoy during his/her lifetime the right to recognition of his/her authorship of the translation, from which it follows, inter alia, that
(a) his/her name shall be mentioned clearly and unambiguously whenever his/her translation is used publicly;
(b) he/she shall be entitled to oppose any distortion, mutilation or other modification of his/her translation;
(c) publishers and other users of his/her translation shall not make changes therein without the translator's prior consent;
(d) he/she shall be entitled to prohibit any improper use of his/her translation and, in general, to resist any attack upon it that is prejudicial to his/her honour or reputation.
18. Furthermore, the exclusive right to authorize the publication, presentation, broadcasting, re-translation, adaptation, modification or other rendering of his/her translation, and, in general, the right to use his/her translation in any form shall remain with the translator.
19. For every public use of his/her translation the translator shall be entitled to remuneration at a rate fixed by contract or law.
Section III
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POSITION OF THE TRANSLATOR
20. The translator must be assured of living conditions enabling him/her to carry out with efficiency and dignity the social task conferred on him/her.
21. The translator shall have a share in the success of his/her work and shall, in particular, be entitled to remuneration proportional to the commercial proceeds from the work he/she has translated.
22. It must be recognized that translation can also arise in the form of commissioned work and acquire as such rights to remuneration independent of commercial profits accruing from the work translated.
23. The translating profession, like other professions, shall enjoy in every country a protection equal to that afforded to other professions in that country, by collective agreements, standard contracts, etc.
24. Translators in every country shall enjoy the advantages granted to intellectual workers, and particularly of all social insurance schemes, such as old-age pensions, health insurance, unemployment benefits and family allowances.
Section IV
TRANSLATORS' SOCIETIES AND UNIONS
25. In common with members of other professions, translators shall enjoy the right to form professional societies or unions.
26. In addition to defending the moral and material interests of translators, these organizations shall have the task of ensuring improvement in standards of translation and of dealing with all other matters concerning translation.
27. They shall exert their influence on public authorities in the preparation and introduction of legal measures and regulations concerning the profession.
28. They shall strive to maintain permanent relations with organizations which are users of translations (publishers' associations, industrial and commercial enterprises, public and private authorities, the Press, etc.) for the purpose of studying and finding solutions to their common problems.
29. In watching over the quality of all works translated in their countries, they shall keep in touch with cultural organizations, societies of authors, national sections of the Pen Club, literary critics, learned societies, universities, and technical and scientific research institutes.
30. They shall be competent to act as arbiters and experts in all disputes arising between translators and users of translations.
31. They shall have the right to give advice on the training and recruitment of translators, and to co-operate with specialized organizations and universities in the pursuit of these aims.
32. They shall endeavour to collect information of interest to the profession from all sources and to place it at the disposal of translators in the form of libraries, files, journals and bulletins, for which purpose they shall establish theoretical and practical information services, and organize seminars and meetings.
Section V
NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF TRANSLATORS
33. Where several groups of translators exist in a country, organized either on a regional basis or into different categories, it will be desirable for these groups to co-ordinate their activities in a central national organization, at the same time preserving their identity.
34. In countries where societies or unions of translators are not yet in existence, it is suggested that translators should join forces to bring about the necessary establishment of such an organization, in accordance with the relevant legal requirements of their country.
35. To ensure the attainment of their aims at world level by common effort, national translators' organizations are called upon to unite in the Fédération internationale des traducteurs (International Federation of Translators [FIT]).
36. Translators shall join their national organizations of their own free will and the same must apply to the societies with respect to their association with the International Federation of Translators.
37. The International Federation of Translators shall defend the material and moral rights of translators at the international level, keep in touch with progress in theoretical and practical matters relating to translation, and endeavour to contribute to the spread of civilization throughout the world.
38. The International Federation of Translators shall attain these objectives by representing translators at the international level, particularly through relations with governmental, non-governmental and supranational organizations, by taking part in meetings likely to be of interest to translators and translation at the international level, by publishing works, and by organizing or arranging for the organization of congresses at which questions concerning translation or translators may be examined.
39. In general the International Federation of Translators shall extend the activities of the societies of every country at the international level, co-ordinate their efforts and define its common policy.
40. The national societies and the International Federation of Translators, their central organization, derive the strength necessary for the pursuit of their professional objectives from the feeling of solidarity existing among translators and from the dignity of translation which contributes to better understanding among nations and to the spread of culture throughout the world.
http://www.fit-ift.org/en/charter.php#oblig


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قديم 09-03-2006, 08:15 AM
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تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
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افتراضي _MD_RE: توصيات بشأن مهنة الترجمة

من قانون المحكمة الدولية لحقوق الإنسان حاء- المترجمون/المترجمون الشفويون

17-
ينبغي من الناحية المثالية أن يتخاطب موظف حقوق الإنسان باللغة المحلية المستخدمة في المحاكمة. ونظرا لعدم إمكانية هذه القدرة اللغوية في جميع الحالات، يحتاج المراقبون في كثير من الأحيان إلى مترجمين أو مترجمين شفويين للمساعدة في المراقبة وفي إجراء المقابلات، الخ. ومن الأفضل عموما الحصول على مترجم/مترجم شفوي قبل الوصول إلى مكان المحاكمة.

18-
وتنطبق هنا في العادة الاعتبارات الواردة في الفصل الثامن المعنون "إجراء المقابلات" بشأن استخدام المترجمين الشفويين. وينبغي اختيار المترجم/المترجم الشفوي بعناية فائقة لأن ذلك سيؤثر كثيرا على استقلال المراقب وعدم تحيزه وما يتكون عنه من انطباعات. وينبغي أن يكون المترجم/المترجم الشفوي واسع الاطلاع، وموثوق به وعلى علم بالمصطلحات القانونية. وينبغي أيضا أن يكون غير متحيز وأن يكون معروفا بذلك. وعندما يأتي المترجم/المترجم الشفوي من منظمة أو حزب سياسي أو جماعة ينتمي إليها المدعى عليه، فإن المراقب (1) قد يبدو متحيزا و (2) قد لا يستطيع التحقق من صحة الترجمة. وبالإضافة إلى ذلك، فإن اختيار مترجم متعاطف مع المدعى عليه قد يعرض المترجم (ومن الممكن أن يعرض المراقب) لخطر بالغ. وفي المقابل، ينبغي ألا يعوّل المراقب على خدمات مترجم من الحكومة.

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