Arabic Translators International _ الجمعية الدولية لمترجمي العربية


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مصادر المترجم Translator's References المصادر والمراجع والموارد التي يمكن للمترجم الاستعانة بها في عمله.

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أدوات الموضوع طرق مشاهدة الموضوع
قديم 07-13-2006, 07:03 AM
الصورة الرمزية soubiri
soubiri soubiri غير متواجد حالياً
أعضاء رسميون
تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
المشاركات: 1,459
افتراضي The Translation Profession- Roger Chriss

The Translation Profession



So what's it all about? Who and what is a translator? How does one become a translator? What is going on in the translation profession? This article and the other thirteen will take a close look at these and related questions. This first article is an overview of what is to come in the rest of the series, though by no means an outline or a summation of the remaining thirteen articles. If you are an experienced translator, you might want to browse this article and then get into the meatier discussions of current and forthcoming technologies, sticky financial and legal issues, or nagging ethical problems. If you are new to the profession, or if you are exploring translation as a possible profession, please take the time to read this article so that you are acquainted with certain basics about translators and what they do.


What is a Translator?

A translator converts written material, such as newspaper and magazine articles, books, manuals, or documents from one language into another. This is not to be confused with an interpreter, who converts spoken material, such as speeches, presentations, depositions, and the like, from one language to another. Although there is some vague connection between the abilities involved in translation and interpretation, translators cannot necessarily interpret, nor can interpreters necessarily translate. Moreover, the best translators are not good interpreters and likewise, truly great interpreters are not much for translation. And while many professional training programs require interpreters to develop some skill in translation, professionally trained translators often have no exposure to the skills of interpretation.

*To be clear about the languages used by translators, I’ll refer to the translator’s native language as the A language and the non-native languages as the B or C languages. A B language is one which the translator can speak, read, and write virtually as a native speaker does. A C language is one which the translator can read and understand like a native, but does not necessarily speak or write so well. Obviously we all have an A language, and equally evident, all translators have a B language. Many translators have more than one B language, and some also have C languages. What very few people have is two A languages, and even if you are one of those who do, take care in making the claim, as many people will be skeptical.

I’ll also use the following terms. Source text or language will refer to the language which the material first appears in, usually the translator’s B language. Target text and language refer to the language that the material is translated into, usually the translator’s A language. In general, translators work from their B or C languages into their A languages, though an individual’s skills and the market’s needs may alter this principle.



A good translator is by definition bilingual. The opposite is not necessarily true, however. A born and bred bilingual will still need two things to become a translator: first, the skills and experience necessary for translation; second, knowledge of the field in which he or she will translate. The skills and experience for translation include the ability to write well in the target language, the ability to read and understand the source language material thoroughly, and the ability to work with the latest word-processing and communications hardware and software.

This brings up an important question: Does a born and bred bilingual makes a better translator than someone who learned the B language later in life? There is no definite answer, but the following issues are important. First, a born and bred bilingual often suffers from not truly knowing any language well enough to translate, with some even suffering from what is known as alingualism, a state in which a person does lacks a full, fluent command of any language. Second, born and bred bilinguals often don’t know the culture of the target language well enough to provide top-quality translations, or cannot recognize what aspects of the source language and its culture need to be treated with particular care, as they are in a sense too close to the language. And last, they often lack the analytical linguistic skills to work through a sticky text.

On the other hand, the acquired bilingual may not have the same in-depth knowledge of colloquialisms, slang, and dialect that the born bilingual has. As well, the acquired bilingual will not be able to translate as readily in both directions (from B to A language and A to B language). Finally, born bilinguals often have a greater appreciation of the subtleties and nuances of both their languages than someone who learns their B language later in life can ever hope to have.

The Education of a Translator

Translators come from all backgrounds. Some have Masters degrees in translation from the Monterey Institute of International Studies or Kent State University, some have certificates from Georgetown University or other programs in the United States, others have degrees from schools in Europe (such as the ones in London, Paris, or Geneva) or Asia (such as Simul Academy in Tokyo or Winzao in Taiwan) and many have a degree in a general field such as literature or history. While a specialized degree in translation is useful, it is far from necessary. What counts more than anything else is ability. So where does this ability come from?

Perhaps it is nature, but I suspect that nurture helps immensely. Most translators are very well-read in their languages, and can write well. Some are writers who use translation as a way to write for a living. Others are fascinated by language and use translation as a way to be close to their favorite subject. Still others are experts in certain fields and use their language skills to work in that field.

Almost all professional translators in the United States have at least a college degree. Some even have advanced degrees either in translation or in the field they specialize in (a few even have both). Most translators have university-level language training in their B and C languages. Some started their languages earlier, others later, but very few translators have no language training at all. Of course, language training might mean specialized courses from a variety of schools.

Translators also generally have lived in the countries where their languages are spoken. I know of translators who have spent seven or even ten years in the countries of their B language. Some translators have spent more time in the country of their B language than in the country of their A language. The notable exception to this is Spanish in the United States and English abroad. Because Spanish is used so widely and is as common as English in many parts of the U.S., some translators learn and then work in the language without ever leaving the U.S. As well, translators in other countries often work from English into their native language with just the language training they received in school.

Above all, translators must have a deep interest and dedication to the languages they work with. The only exception to this rule is people who translate very specialized material. I know an individual with a Ph.D. in mathematics who translated a book on topology from French to English. His French skills are dubious, but since few people in the world understand the material, he was suitable. In almost all cases, however, translators have to be committed to honing and polishing their language skills throughout their professional life.

The knowledge of the field the translator is working in is often overlooked by translators and those that hire them. Translators are by definition language professionals, but they also have to cultivate a knowledge of the areas they work in. Few translators claim to be able to translate anything written in their languages, just as few people can claim to be experts in everything. Most translators have to specialize, working with one or a few related categories of material: legal, financial, medical, computers, or electrical engineering, to name a few. Each field has its own vocabulary, syntax, and style; the translator has to work hard to develop the knowledge necessary to deal with such material. The knowledge also includes two other important factors. First, the translator should have the background knowledge to work in the field. This does not mean that a medical translator should have an M.D. or that a translator of software manuals should be a programmer. But some background, experience, or education (or all three) is essential. This can be obtained through coursework, on-the-job experience, or self-study. No one seems too concerned with exactly how translators develop their subject knowledge, as long as they truly have. And though translators do have degrees in their specialization, most do not.

Second, the translator should have the necessary resources to deal with the material. This means dictionaries, glossaries, and any other resources. Such resources can include web sites devoted to translation or terminology, Usenet discussion groups concerning translation, friends or colleagues who work in the profession, and magazines and journals. And translators have to work tirelessly to maintain if not improve their knowledge of the fields they work in by reading related material. They also have to invest the time and money in maintaining their reference library.

In other words, professional translators are always learning. You don’t just put your hand on a rock and say: "I am a translator." Nor do you simply acquire a language in a few months by living somewhere and then begin translating. Heinrich Schliemann may have learned to read each of his languages in six weeks, but he couldn’t write or speak them (nor did he need to). Moreover, at that time, languages had considerably more limited vocabularies than now. And of course, reading and translating are two separate things.

So at what point are you ready to begin translating? Simple. When you feel that your abilities of expression and comprehension in your A and B languages are strong enough that you can do the job properly by the client’s deadline. The length of time to cultivate these abilities depends on the person and the language. Native speakers of English have an easier time with the Romance and Germanic languages because their grammars, syntax, and vocabulary are relatively familiar. A language like Chinese or Japanese takes a long time simply because you have to learn to read and understand thousands of characters, as well as deal with grammar, syntax, and structure wholly unrelated to that seen in English.

Finally, you have to be able to prove that you have the skills you claim to have. Experience living, working, and studying in the country of your B language is one form of proof. A degree in your language or in translation is another. Taking a test such as the ones given by the ATA, the State Department, or the United Nations is another. But I’ll leave the discussion of accreditation for a separate article.

What is a Translation?

A turn-of-the-century Russian translator said: "Translation is like a woman, if she is beautiful, she is not faithful; if she is faithful, she is not beautiful." I hope you will ignore the blatant sexism in the statement and instead see one of the kernels of truth in translation. Translators must strike a balance between fidelity to the source text and readability in the target language. We have all seen material that is so obviously translated as to sound awkward in our native languages, and in some cases as to bear enough hallmarks of the source language as to be readily identifiable as coming from it. The best translation is the one that no one recognizes as a translation. In other words, the document should read as though it were written in the target language originally. This implies, by extension, that the translator's time and effort are transparent, and the translator ends up being invisible. In other words, you do your best work when no one realizes you have done anything.

Achieving this level of translation is challenging, to say the least. Imagine walking a tightrope blindfolded during a wind storm, with people throwing heavy objects at you and shaking the rope. This represents the balancing act. Now add to it the often unreasonable deadline which agencies require of translators by having someone behind you on the rope poking you in the seat of your pants with a pitchfork. Sound frustrating? It can be. But if you enjoy a challenge and know how to deal with your languages, it’s not too bad after you’ve been at if for a while (I suppose the same can be said for tightrope walking).

The trick is to let your clients decide what they want. Since they have to live with the results of your work, let them choose. Patiently explain to them the options they have, how long each might take, and how much each possible version will cost. They’ll decide if they want a literal, if unreadable, translation or if they want a Pulitzer Prize-winning text.

If your client can’t decide, doesn’t know, or won’t tell you, then follow the advice of Buddha and take the middle path. This is easier with some languages and some subject areas than others. Although most people think that technical material is easiest for stylistic considerations, consider this. Academic style varies from nation to nation. In English, we generally present our thesis, then give the evidence, develop the argument, and then reach the conclusion. However, in Japanese, we usually present a vague thesis, give the evidence slowly with lots of discussion, and then reach some tentative statement about the thesis in the form of a conclusion. Other differences exist among other language pairs. Somehow you have to deal with these differences.

Another potential pitfall with technical translation is that often the client cannot let you see or touch the object in question. If you are translating a computer system manual, it’s very helpful to see and even work a little with the system. The same holds for a video game, home audio component, or for that matter a scanning electron microscope, which I realize is hardly something you want in your home, but I have translated manuals and technical specifications for such technology. Sometimes seeing the product in question is not possible, the system or software may still be in development, so you are effectively flying blind, trying to land yourself at a destination you’ve never seen. You might have to create terminology for the system, only to find that the client wants something else. You then have to go back and change everything you did.

The most difficult problem is when you encounter something in one language that doesn’t exist in the other. Financial instruments, legal procedures, government and business structures, and so on vary from nation to nation and culture to culture. Although standard glossaries exist for the most commonplace of these, in other words those that you might hear about on Headline News, translators are usually dealing with new or specialized material and information, so you might be stuck having to christen something on your own, or leave it in the A language and put in a translator’s note explaining what the term means.

There is a Golden Triangle in any form of business. It is an equilateral triangle (meaning that all three sides are the same size), with the first side being Quality, the second, Time, and the last, Price. If you consider an ideal project to be a balance of all three, and therefore rest in the center of the triangle, you can see what happens when you want to lower costs (imagine your job moving toward the Price side). Quality goes down and Time remains the same. If you want a cheap job done quickly, then Quality really drops. Conversely, if you want a job whose Quality is excellent, then Price and Time both rise. Keep this in mind when you consider your translation speed and what you charge; you will want to be flexible in both areas to give your clients what they want.

What is a Translated?

Most of the material people want translated is not high culture. I have translated materials ranging from articles in medical journals on deep vein thrombosis to bearer’s bonds. The longest translation project I ever did was a 65,000-word book; the shortest, a two-word phrase.

Outsiders to the profession generally see translation as a slow and expensive process which most businesses and organizations would rather avoid. One client told me that translation was, and I quote, "A f*cking pain in the Go**amn #ss." They prefer not to go through the hassle of calling some agency, sending them the material, waiting for a bid, bargaining and haggling over price, form and date of delivery, and then waiting to see if they get something they can use. Very little of what businesses do is worth translating. So what they do translate has to be important to someone somewhere. And therefore it has to be important to you to do it right, especially if you want to get more work from that client.

What might seem stupid to you could be worth a lot to someone. I’ve translated lost traveler’s checks surveys, interoffice memos, and advertising copy for car care products. None of this is high culture. But someone wanted it, so I did my absolute best. Remember, the only way to survive as a translator is to do a good job. You will be judged primarily if not solely on your work.

This said, materials to be translated come in all sizes and shapes. Often you have to deal with hand-written material. Someone scrawled out some message to someone else and this twenty-five-word chit of paper is now Exhibit A in an international patent infringement lawsuit. You probably won’t know that, but it could happen. When I was working in-house as a translator for the City of Kawasaki in Japan, my supervisor plopped a short letter on my desk and I translated it. I later found out that Prime Minister Takeshita took this letter to President Reagan during the Summit meeting in 1988. You never know.

When translating, no problem is too small, no term too minor to be ignored. The people who read your translation don’t know the source language. If they did, they wouldn’t have hired you. It’s easy to see why an article describing a surgical procedure must be done very accurately. It might be harder to see why the comments of a Japanese co-ed on an airline survey would be important, but they could affect future policy of that carrier. You have to take it all seriously if you want your clients to take you seriously.d

The Role of the Translator

Translators are language professionals. They are applied linguists, competent writers, diplomats, and educated amateurs. Like linguists, translators have to be capable of discerning subtleties and nuances in their languages, researching terminology and colloquialisms, and handling new developments in their languages. Like writers, translators have to be accustomed to working long hours alone on a subject which interests few people and with a language that few people around them know. Like diplomats, translators have to be sensitive to the cultural and social differences which exist in their languages and be capable of addressing these issues when translating. And like educated amateurs, translators have to know the basics and some of the details about the subjects they deal with.

The above is an idealization of the translator, an image which professional translators aspire to and achieve with varying degrees of success. Not all translators need to overflow with these qualities. They must, however, have them in sufficient measure to be able to translate their material in a manner acceptable to their clients.

Somewhere in the process of translating, the translator will come across all these issues. When I work with technical or medical documents, I have to deal with the intricacies of technical writing in Japanese and English and research new or obscure terms (and sometimes invent my own). I struggle with my English to polish and hone it so that the client sees the material as natural, without the tell-tale signs that it was translated from Japanese. I deal with the differences between Japanese and American culture, especially when I translate computer manuals. We give instructions and explanations in the U.S. very differently from how people give them in Japan.

Like any professional, translators have to stay on top of their areas of expertise. I devote a lot of my time to browsing through magazines like "PC Magazine", "MacWorld", "Scientific American", "The Journal of the American Medical Association", and the "New England Journal of Medicine" as well as reading numerous books on developments in medicine and computer science.

The fundamental rule when you’re not sure of a term or phrase is ask. When you have doubts or questions about a translation, call the client, ask your question, and then get the answer. If you’re still not sure, make a note of it in the final translation. Clients are surprisingly tolerant of such notes and often expect them. I’ve even heard that clients are sometimes suspicious when they don’t see these notes. After all, how much can a translator know about new surgical procedures to clear a pulmonary embolism?d*

In-House versus Freelance

Translators either work for themselves as freelance translators or in-house as employees of, for instance, a translation agency or software localization firm. The former are typically called freelance translators, or freelancers, and the latter in-house translators. If you are just entering the profession, or if you are considering translation as a career, you have to look closely at these two options to decide which is right for you.

As a freelance translator, you are a business owner. You will take care of marketing, invoicing, accounts payable and receivable, taxes, equipment purchases and maintenance, and so forth. Freelance translators may make more per year on average than in-house translators, but their income is far more variable, and they have to cover all their own expenses, including all taxes, retirement funds, medical and other forms of insurance, and business/operating costs.

As an in-house translator, you work for someone else. You go to your office in the morning, sit in your cubicle during the day translating whatever the company needs, attend meetings to discuss large-scale translation projects, terminology, or equipment, go to training sessions to learn to use the new LAN system or MAT software, and then go home in the evening. Like most jobs, you get paid vacation, insurance, half of your Social Security and FICA taxes paid, and a retirement plan of some sort.

Although the remaining articles will discuss the above differences between freelance and in-house translation in detail, and even offer suggestions as to which people might be suited for, I will say here that often questions of personality and work style are irrelevant. The first and most important question is money. Can you afford to be a freelance translator? To start as a freelance translator, you will need a several thousand dollars to get the computer hardware and software you need, to do some marketing, and to wait out the first few months during which time you will likely have little work, and you will be patiently waiting for that first invoice to be paid. So if you are single with few financial responsibilities, some money saved, and don't mind a bit of a risk, the answer to the money question is affirmative: you can have a go at freelance translation. If however you are married with a couple of children, have the usual expenses of a mortgage, medical costs, and so forth, then you should think very carefully before starting up as a freelance translator.

There is also a strong argument for getting your feet wet in the industry by working for someone else. You can think of it as paid on-the-job training. You will learn more about translating by translating than by doing anything else. And you will also acquire not only all that secondary know-how, such as word processing, negotiating, or filing tax forms, but also lots of practical knowledge of the industry, such as rates, which language pairs or subject areas are in demand, or what technologies are likely to affect translation in the near future. You might even develop relationships that can be turned into clients for a freelance business. So consider starting off as an in-house translator, especially if you are uncomfortable with the financial aspects of working for yourself, or are uncertain as to how you
will feel about working at home alone.*

A Paradox

The very qualities that seem to make a good translator, those of attention to detail, passion for languages and research, care and craft in writing, also seem to be those that make a poor negotiator or marketing person. How does one overcome this paradox? One, force yourself to market, even when you don’t want to. Make a commitment to yourself to send 100 letters to agencies this week; to call your top five clients for a brief chat; to do annual taxes before 1 October, after having filed an extension on 15 April. You are in business, and don’t forget it.

You should also remind your clients that you are a business professional. Translators want to be treated as professionals, and therefore, they have to behave as professionals. Take the time to learn about your industry, about your languages, about your subject specializations, and about the technology you use to do the work you do. In any industry, there are always too many people wanting to do the work to be done, and too few people who can actually do the work properly. As a translator, you want to make clear to everyone that you are in the latter category, and not in the former.

Above all, as a translator, you are standing between two people or organizations, one which created the material and the other which wants to read it. You are their solution to this otherwise intractable problem. Remember, it’s the information age, and there’s lots of information out there in lots of languages. Translators are the ones who bring this precious commodity to the people who want it.

صابر أوبيري
رد مع اقتباس
قديم 07-18-2006, 07:25 AM
الصورة الرمزية AdilAlKufaishi
AdilAlKufaishi AdilAlKufaishi غير متواجد حالياً
عضو رسمي
تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
المشاركات: 107
افتراضي _MD_RE: The Translation Profession- Roger Chriss

Getting Started as a Translator
Wendy Jonas
Native English Speakers (NES)
There are many paths to translation. Among NES, either a prior interest in Japanese language itself (JET, foreign study, time spent in Japan, language study), natural bilinguals (people raised in bilingual homes), professionals in other fields who read Japanese that chose translation - all of these are possible paths to translation. There are various training opportunities for NES: specialized translation schools like the Monterey Institute of International Studies, Bath University, University of Queensland, and others that offer a Master's Degree in Japanese/English translation and interpreting. There is a preparation course for NES translators in offered in Tokyo through Simul International. Native English speakers can also try their chances at entering a Japanese-based translation school, but the instruction is usually geared to NJS. Other possible patterns are "trial by fire," apprenticeships, and on-the-job training.
Native Japanese Speakers (NJS)
Among NJSs, many native J's who like languages and enter the profession for that purpose working their way up from in-house or agency jobs. There are also translator "wannabe" housewives, others who train to be translators using correspondence courses, senmongakko, apprenticeships systems, informal networks, and OJT. Professionals who happen to know English well enough will sometimes get shunted to translation responsibilities at work.
"Those that can't, translate?" Or "Why you need a specialty!"
Those that can't, translate?
Practical or specific experience is necessary in translation for the "skill" of the art, but a specialty is also vastly important. There are a few ways to develop a specialty:
• Choose to translate in a field you have a background in. (ie if you were a biology major and worked as a lab assistant for a few years, biological, medical, or biotech translation would be good.)
• Find a field you LIKE by reading lots in different fields in your non-native language, and gradually building up work experience in that field (research different fields based on business demand in your native language).
• Get training in a non-primary field by either working in house or employing an editor/mentor.
Five Golden Rules for Beginning Translators
Ideally, there are no golden rules. But, these rules will serve you well as a first-time freelancer, and help you from tarnishing your reputation before you know any better!
1. Never Miss a Deadline
Any beginning translator thinks that this will never happen to them. They are properly trained adults who are fine at time management. Then you get a job that somehow conflicts with a prior commitment, is harder than you think it will be, or just takes too long to translate. Or you get sick and can't make it to the keyboard. Regardless of the reason, the client doesn't care. Most agencies give a little leeway in dates in their planning schedules (i.e. they require a document to be turned in on the 15th, and have a deadline of the 12th for you), but you shouldn't expect that. The single biggest way to anger a new client is to miss a deadline. There is a corollary to rule 1 though: If you will miss a deadline, call the client at the earliest possible time and let them know. Two hours before the document is due will not help the client, but 12 or 24 hours will let them do sufficient damage control to save your, and their, reputations.
2. Never Work for a Pittance
The temptation to work for low pay is very alluring for the beginning translator. In fact, this was the piece of advice that was hardest enough for me to believe from my professors/mentors. The only way to get STARTED translating as a freelancer is to work, but if you are a first-time freelancer, how do you find work? No one will hire an inexperienced translator. It's a "vicious circle." At first, I was so excited that someone would PAY me to translate that I took jobs for low rates. And yes, you do have to start somewhere. But the real point is: if you establish client relationships (and you will eventually) at low rates, it is very difficult to raise those rates later on when you have more experience, and consider yourself "worth it". In addition, beginning translators that set rates too low risk alienating the "community" in general, as in general per-word prices are being driven downwards for all translators. You will appreciate this more a few years into your career, trust me.
One problem is knowing WHAT to charge to begin with. Ask fellow translators you know what their rates are, or ask the JAT list what is a "fair wage." In general, any figure per word in the single digits is too low, in my opinion. A rate quoted for me for professionals in the US (J-E native) was 16-18 cents per word, with high-end specialty work going substantially higher. I was offered jobs as low as 9 cents a word, and I did jobs for as low as $0.12, though it was a volume job. Assume that the agency will try and pay you the lowest rate possible, especially if you are an un-tried translator. They are running a business. And have a definite answer ready when you are asked what your rates are. A good rule of thumb is to ask: what is your time worth? If you are paid Y2000 per page of J-E translation, and it takes you one hour to translate one page (which sometimes happens for beginners), you could make more money teaching English conversation in Japan. It is my experience that agencies and clients will pay for quality if you can sell it. Right now I do freelance work as a side business to my in-house job, so I actually set rates as a way of screening clients. When I move freelance full-time, I hope to have enough client relationships established so I don't have to lower rates, but we'll see.
It is acceptable to discount your rates a little (20% or so) if you are beginner to get work in the door. You need to build experience. However, anything lower than that and you are selling yourself short.
3. Never Take on a Job and You Are not Confident You Can Finish Well
Many translators have experienced this. They are offered a big job they are interested in, and either the money or subject matter is too interesting to turn down. But the deadline will be very tight, or the subject matter out of their area of specialization. I contend that taking a job, only to finish it poorly or not at all, is unprofessional. If you are doubtful about your ability to complete the volume expected, offer to negotiate: cut the volume in half or other parts, or offer to split the work up and edit it (always get client approval!). If you are doubtful of the subject matter, speak up—ask for a glossary, a technical edit, or previous documents to help. If your doubts cannot be addressed by the client, then pass up the job. Another job will come along, I promise, but once your reputation with an agency or client is ruined, it takes a long time to be repaired.

4. Always Check Proper Nouns
In the context of J-E translation, this means check on the Internet, reference books, and other materials (even asking someone!) for English references to determine the most commonly used English word for the Japanese. Names, company names, places, person names, titles of books and songs: see if it has been translated before! This is an area I always check when going over out-sourced work at my in-house job. It is just a little effort that can go a long way in reducing an editor's job. Conversely, if you have been lax in doing your research in translating proper nouns, it is one of the first things an editor or project manager will notice.

5. Always Spell/Grammar Check
This again seems obvious, but you would be surprised at how many people do NOT follow these rules. I always consider this sort of mistake a waste - an automatic spell-check or grammar-check function on your word processor can help stop these misses. Also, try and EDIT your document at least once for readability before sending it off!
Winning Your First Job—a Timeline
1. Develop translation skills. Practice translating, and have translations edited by someone knowledgeable and bilingual. Expect to pay for the privilege.
2. Develop a resume and a target specialty area. Your resume should CLEARLY list your A&B languages, your past experience if pertaining to translation, your education (any translation related courses, etc.), your study abroad, your TOEIC etc. scores, and your computer environment. Target major companies/agencies in your specialty area.
3. Network, network, network! Tell everyone you know that you are a beginning translator looking for work. If you are lucky, an established translator will outsource some work to you, check it, and mentor you. Get to know these people! Attend JAT meetings or like-minded gatherings. I think 75-80% of the best translation jobs are spread from person to person.
4. Begin to study your target market area. Read trade and industry publications in your native and especially target languages. Become familiar with the terms in the field in both languages. Build your personal glossaries. Meet people in the field and ask them to tour a factory, show you their office. Ask them about an average day. The more people you know, the more potential business you have. Also, learn about translation agencies that specialize in your field. Ask about potential trial translations, jobs, etc. Meet translators in the field and ask them for advice too.
5. If no work still comes your way after all this networking, THEN begin to send unsolicited resumes or assuming the freelance strategy fails, think about in-house. Marketing yourself, and making the effort, will result in better client relationships down the road.
Mentoring/Editing Possibilities
Beginning translators would do well to find a reliable mentor or editor to work with. Ideally, a mentor would be a senior translator in your field of specialization. However, if finding such a person is difficult, then even finding someone to check your translation from the Japanese to English and find meaning errors and critique your translation style would be beneficial.
I think mentors should be paid - both people get more out of their relationship this way. Mentors should be compensated for meeting time or editing time at a REASONABLE, would you pay any less for language lessons or other professional services? Another option is to work long-distance with a senior translator in an apprentice-type relationship (ie they subcontract work to you, you receive feedback and edits for a cut of the overall per-word or per-page price). These types of relationships can be helpful and hurtful sometimes - it is important to consider personal relationships and translation styles carefully. In all, mentoring is a vital tool for beginning J-E translators who do not have access to full or part-time formal training opportunities.
Also, it is doubtful you will get substantial and or useful help for free. Most successful freelance translators are very good at measuring their time in money—you will be likely to get the most help by appealing to this instinct. Remember they are training their future competition!
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افتراضي _MD_RE: The Translation Profession- Roger Chriss

Teaching through translation
by Jonathan Stoddart

Translation is one of the greatest resources teachers have at their fingertips, since there is a wealth of ready-prepared, authentic materials which have great generative potential if exploited well. However, it is frequently discredited, for, among other things, being 'uncommunicative', or for focusing purely on accuracy, and teachers have been programmed to view translation as 'bad' classroom practice. My aim in this article is to show that translation does have a place in the classroom and that its implementation Carl be beneficial for learners. Besides, students do, and always will, translate into their L1, no matter how often we exhort them not to - Atkinson (in Harbord, 1992) calls it a "learner-preferred strategy . . . and an inevitable part of second language acquisition". Perhaps we should stop working against this tendency and turn it to our advantage.
Less didactically, over 60% of the world is bi- or multi-lingual, so translation is an everyday activity for many people, with extremely practical applications. The fact that translation has been frowned upon implies that we take a very Euro-centric view of language: since (most) European countries are monolingual (at least officially), we seem to think this is the norm, not the exception, and that 'good' practice should reflect this. This is hugely unjust to the millions of people who speak two - or more -languages daily.
Furthermore, the majority of my students are professionals or University students who have (primarily passive) contact with English in their jobs or studies. To assume that these students, outside my classroom, read in English without translating, is, I think, a gross misjudgement. Using translation in class and encouraging learners to develop useful, applicable techniques to deal with it is surely more beneficial to learners' real needs than, say, role-play or cloze exercises.
As international integration grows, translation will become more and more necessary for non-native speakers of English. I think it would be unfair of me to withhold this valuable technique from my learners.
Translation in the development of language teaching
Translation has always played a role in language teaching. Until the end of the eighteenth century, learning a foreign language implied learning Latin and was based around bi-lingual word lists and parallel texts. When 'modem' languages began to be taught at the end of the century, the same approach was followed, and the structures of English, French, Italian and so on were presented in relation to the structure of Latin. Speaking was not the aim of learning the language: the focus was on the translation of model sentences, chosen to exemplify the structural idiosyncrasies of the language system. Richards and Rodgers (1986) give this example of language having no surrender-value whatsoever for the student:
The philosopher pulled the lower jaw of the hen.
My sons have bought the mirrors of the Duke.
The cat of my aunt is more treacherous than the dog of your uncle.
Titone 1968:28 (in Richards and Rodgers, 1986)
This approach became known as the Grammar-Translation method, since students were presented with rules and then applied them in translation. The theoretical underpinning was "memorising rules and facts in order to understand and manipulate the morphology and the syntax of the foreign language" (Stern, in Richards and Rodgers, 1986). The importance of structure in this approach has resulted in the view that translation is unpedagogical and uncommunicative, which still persists today. The 'Communicative Approach', which most teachers today would profess to use (in some form or other) in the classroom is ambiguous in its approach to translation. Purists argue that all interaction should be undertaken in the L2, although some advocates claim that translation can - and should - be used (judiciously) in class. Howatt (in Richards and Rodgers, 1986), for example, writes: "translation may be used where students need or benefit from it."
Other approaches which use L! in practice include 'Community Language Learning' (where students are provided with language after saying it in the mother tongue) and 'Suggestopaedia' (where learners are frequently exposed to bilingual word-lists or parallel Ll-L2 texts).
While preparing this article, I looked at a number of Advanced-level coursebooks to see how they approached translation. I was surprised to find that none of those I consulted included the technique as a classroom activity, although a number of lower-level coursebooks did. Here is one example:
• I've been to the United States.
• I went there in 1987.
• Have you ever tried Indian food?
• I live in the capital city of my country. I've lived here all my life
This would imply two things. Firstly, materials are designed with international markets in mind, including multi-lingual classes, where using translation would be unwieldy. Secondly, learners who have reached an advanced level of proficiency in English are considered not to need translation as a tool for acquisition, since they are already able to manipulate the language system successfully and do not need L! reassurance as they gain new language.
A summary of translation theory and problems translation poses
There is a great deal of theory behind the different concepts of translation. I will now consider some of the issues central to the translation process. It is worthwhile looking at these issues since I can confirm that the problems they give rise to are all apparent in my learners' production. The errors they commit in speaking and writing are all unquestionably due to translating (often unconsciously) directly from their L!
Decoding and recoding
This Saussurian principle dictates that language is conveyed through a combination of signs, these being the letters or sounds the writer/speaker uses to convey meaning. These signs vary from language to language, so in order to translate a message the translator must, firstly, decode the signs of the source text to understand the message, secondly, analyse the message for meaning, thirdly, transpose the content into the target language and, finally, reformulate the message using the signs of the target language. The model below summarises the process:




(Nida, in Bassnett-McGuire, 1991)

Obviously, the closer the source language is to the target language, the easier it will be to transfer meaning successfully. Difficulties arise, though, when the L! and the L2 are more distant, or when the "meaning-patterns" (Sapir, in Manko, 1998) of the L! differ from the L2, in which case they are likely to influence target production.
Translation, therefore, goes beyond simply linguistic equation of meaning, since in practice anyone involved in the process must be aware of the paralinguistic implications of the message being conveyed. A good example is the translation of the English pronoun you. Although context often indicates the relationship between speaker and hearer, English makes no distinction between number, nor shows levels of formality, using periphrasis to overcome this. Thus the translator, recoding you into, say, French, must decide whether tu or vous is more appropriate. In Portuguese, this pragmatic choice is further complicated by the existence of eight possible renderings of you.
Strategic decisions
The translator has to take strategic decisions. These encompass the semantic and pragmatic features of the text, and address one of the most controversial issues of translation: how close should the target text be to the source text? Translators must decide whether their version should be nearer the source text, and thus risk L2 fluency, or be a free-standing example of discourse in the target language, and risk being an unrecognisable version of the source text. Hervey and Higgins (1992) claim, however, that to think in terms of a translation being either 'literal' or 'free' is untenable, since all translations fall somewhere on the cline below (adapted from Hervey & Higgins, 1992) :
Linguistic Equivalence
This concept rules that every lexical item carries with it a set of culture-bound connotations, which makes the process of translating one message accurately into another very difficult. Native speakers are aware of these connotations and so there is little scope for serious misunderstanding between them. However, when non-native speakers use language, they may be unaware that some L2 expressions are not fully equivalent to an L1 term, which can lead to misunderstanding, or, in extreme cases, offence. For example, the Portuguese adjective simples when applied to a person is a positive quality, implying a down-to-earth, uncomplicated character; the semiotically similar English lexeme simple carries different connotations.
As well as being interlingual, non-equivalence may also occur on an intralingual level, for example the different concept of bathroom for British and American speakers.
Overcoming problems of equivalence involves using either a different item or combination of items, in order to ensure what Jakobsen (in Bassnett-McGuire, 1991) terms 'adequate interpretation' in the target language. In practice, this means the translator will either subinterpret the text (giving the target audience less information than the source audience) or superinterpret the text (giving the target audience more information).
Loss and gain
This occurs when the target language has no direct equivalent of a source language concept. A frequently-quoted example is the range of Eskimo terms for snow (now discredited in Pullum's The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax, quoted by Swan, in Schmitt and McCarthy, 1997), or the difficulties of expressing time in languages of the Indian subcontinent, where time is viewed as revolving around a point in the present, not as past, present and future as in European languages (for example, the Hindi word kal means either yesterday or tomorrow, depending on the context). The fact that there are no dichotomous translations for a lot of L 1 -L2 (and, obviously, L2-L1) items raises many difficulties for learners. This manifests itself frequently in the classroom. For example, in practice I have noticed that my learners have difficulties rendering some areas of the Portuguese language system, e.g., fazer (do/make) into English, or the variety of words for coffee. Conversely, verbs like glitter, sparkle, gleam, shine, etc., or stare, peek, peer, glance, glimpse, etc. are impossible to translate into Portuguese without using periphrasis.
In translation, meaning is either 'attitudinal' or 'associative'. Attitudinal meaning is used to show the attitude of the writer/speaker to something, and is indicated in his/her choice of words. Hervey and Higgins (1992) give the example of the choices between the police, the fuzz and the pigs, and the different attitudes expressed by the choice of word used. Associative meaning shows associations made by the reader/listener. For example, saying He's a nurse or She's a soldier is syntactically and lexically correct, but the reader/listener may feel it to be semantically 'wrong'. Associative meaning can also be extended to names, dates and places too. For example, November 5th has high associative meaning in Britain, as does 25th April in Portugal.
This occurs when there is no exact syntactical or lexical equivalent in the target language. Examples would include English phrasal verbs, rendered by single lexemes in other languages, or the Portuguese reiterative reply, where the short answer 'echoes' (reiterates) the main verb in the question:
Portuguese: Gostas? Gosto
English: Do you like it? *I like.
Obviously, these problems can be easily remedied, and, in most cases, learners are unaware of the fact that theorists classify them as untranslatable.
Disadvantages of using translation as a teaching resource
Using translation in the classroom has been associated with a number of drawbacks, the most frequently quoted being:
• It focuses solely on two skills (reading and writing).
• It is an unnatural process, since "no two languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality" (Sapir, in Bassnett-McGuire, 199 1).
• Translation is usually product-focused, with emphasis on final versions. This gives students no scope for discussing meaning, especially if the translation is set for homework. Students see it as a mechanical, dull activity because they are not aware of the benefits of translation as a process.
• It places high emphasis on accuracy, contradicting current methodological thinking. This brings into question the whole problem of how to evaluate translation. Evaluation is highly subjective, since there is no universal canon dictating which source and target structures equate. It is therefore difficult to say what is correct and what incorrect, although, presumably, rendering cat as chien would be considered an error. It is easy to focus on the weaknesses of the translation, rather than on its strengths.
• Traditionally, there have been two ways to focus on the effectiveness of a translation: either its closeness to the source text, or its value as a free-standing text in the target language. It seems to me that, in order to evaluate fairly, the teacher needs to be less dogmatic than this, bearing in mind the literal-free cline above. Popovic (in Bassnett-McGuire, 199 1) claims that within several target texts there will be an 'invariant core' of features present in all. The teacher can use this as a basis for evaluation.
• The teacher is required to have a high level of competence in the students' language. Also, translation can only be used successfully in monolingual teaching situations. There are a number of 'paratextual features' in any source text which will cause the translator difficulties, especially in very genre-specific texts, such as poetry or technical manuals. In the classroom, this manifests itself as features of L1 appearing in L2. For example, when writing formal letters, students may use the valediction "*I sign myself respectfully" rather than the standard "Yours faithfully/sincerely", because the former is closer to the conventional form of Portuguese.
• Many texts used are decontextualised and graduation is often overlooked. Advanced students may be able to cope with most, if not all, texts on a linguistic level, but may have more problems decoding and recoding messages between source and target texts.
• Translation can only be used in a limited number of situations. It can be a useful practice activity, (especially if the text is chosen for the linguistic features it contains), and also for testing or evaluation, but cannot be used for, say, presenting new language.
• To translate successfully requires a deep knowledge of both source and target culture. The transposition of ideas and concepts becomes very difficult if the target culture is unknown, or only partly known. (Fortunately, my students are aware of target anglophone culture(s), through TV, films and music, and also through classroom exposure.)
• Students risk becoming over-reliant on translation and will be unable to acquire new language fully until they have translated it.
Advantages of using translation as a teaching resource
Applied linguistics has taken a great interest in translation recently, and in the classroom it benefits students because:
• It is ideal for studying the language system: its focus can be altered to make it genre, lexis, structure or function-specific.
• It encourages learners to think about meaning and form concurrently. This is because in translation they have already been provided with what they have to say, but need to say it in the target language.
• There is a wealth of ready-prepared, fully authentic texts at our fingertips, with examples of all kinds of real language in use for learners to notice. This is surely a better way for learners to build up a holistic picture of the language system than giving them strings of language manipulation exercises. If necessary, or with low levels, texts can be made semi-authentic to highlight specific features of the target language, especially if translation is being used as a practice or evaluation activity, or for remedial and revision work.
• As mentioned, it reflects my learners' contact with English outside the classroom, since they use the language predominantly in its written form.
• Students' world knowledge is improved through authentic exposure to the target culture(s).
• It can be used at all levels, and from the first lesson if required.
• It is a very humanistic approach, since all students are able to follow the development of the lesson.
• It helps students notice non-equivalent linguistic, semantic and pragmatic features of the second language. In doing so, their attention is drawn to the differences between two language systems. This can dispel some of the mysteries of L2, as students are made aware that its structures have a familiar equivalent in their language. Learners can become more prepared to take risks in the target language when they realise that other people use is as a means of communication, just as they themselves do in their own language. This can help students lower their affective filter, in turn making the acquisition of new language easier.
• Using translation can help teachers draw students' attention to ingrained errors, such as false cognates, word order or time-tense distinctions.
• It gives students excellent practice in the subskills of reading and writing. For example, using L2 to L1 translation will improve, among other things, the following L2 reading subskills:
1. recognising the script of the L2 (if different from L1)
2. identification and familiarisation with style, register and appropriacy
3. deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items and meaning-patterns in the second language (including metaphorical and non-standard language)
4. understanding conceptual meaning
5. understanding the communicative function of clauses, sentences and paragraphs
6. familiarisation with cohesion
7. familiarisation with coherence
8. identifying important/relevant information
9. deducing meaning from context
10. heightening awareness of genre and identifying sources
11. heightening awareness of different schemata
12. skimming
13. scanning
The writing subskills that follow will also be developed when learners approach L1 to L2 translations:
1. focusing on new information
2. guiding the reader through the message of the text
3. layout and script manipulation
4. replicating the function of stress and intonation
5. selection and use of register
6. selection and use of style
7. spelling
8. cohesion
9. coherence
10. 0 sequencing ideas
11. 1 connecting clauses, sentences and paragraphs
12. 2 referencing (adapted from Stokes, 1993/1994)
• Translation can help make students' writing more sophisticated if they think of what they want to say in L1 and then, with help, transpose those ideas into L2. This supports the argument that students are rarely willing to take risks, or that once they reach a certain level of linguistic development they stagnate and refuse to stretch themselves.
• Students are unaware of the implications of decoding and recoding a message, or of any of the problems such as equivalence, or loss and gain. Making students more aware of these concepts will (hopefully) sensitise them to the pitfalls of word-for-word translation which frequently occurs in their writing. Students need to be focused on the pragmatic functions of language, rather than on the linguistic features it displays, and, in my view, translation fulfils this objective well.
• Students need to be made aware that some items show no L1-L2 equivalence at all, and that they will have to sacrifice some of the connotative weight of the L1 (or L2) expression. Examples from (British) English could include trying to render Christmas pantomime or Wimbledon into another language.
• Making translation more process-focused provides learners with a more holistic view of the L2. Translation can be made a truly integrative activity, practising all four skills, and encouraging students to manipulate the target language together, through drafting, editing and reviewing, which makes translation less mechanical and product-focused.
• Encouraging students to bring in texts which interest them or which they 'need' will increase motivation and ensure that their needs are constantly met.
Conclusions: implications for the practising teacher
Translation can be a very valuable classroom activity. It is especially -beneficial in the monolingual classroom and can be tailored in such a way that it is highly practical, learner-focused and process-based.
It seems to me that translation can be a highly effective way of drawing learners' attention to the linguistic, semantic and pragmatic features of the target language. I think I should therefore make an effort to give my students greater access to translation as a classroom activity if they want it.
Many of the linguistic errors produced by students are put down to L1 transfer, but I feel it would be more exact to call this phenomenon L1 -L2 mistranslation. Sensitising students to this will hopefully help them iron out at least the more common of these errors. Allowing students simply to 'notice' the salient features of the target language system is not enough to make students competent L2 users (doing so would probably take years in a non-English speaking environment). It is surely more efficient (both for us as teachers and for our learners) to make some of the unique features of the English language system (phrasal verbs, modality, word-final "-s", and so on) more accessible to students by any means necessary, including explicit contrast between L1 and L2 systems. In the course of my reading I came across the term 'refraction' propounded as an alternative description of L1 influence, which is, in my view, an excellent description, implying an imperfect but clearly-discernible image.
In the classroom, then, when we use translation as a technique, there are number of strategies we can usefully adopt. They are:
• To make students more aware of the equivalent affect of what they translate (i.e. whether the effect of the target text will be equal to that of the source text).
• To ensure that texts used are interesting, relevant and, as far as possible, authentic. Using shorter texts in the classroom and longer ones at home which can then be discussed in class will maximise the time spent in class and will encourage spontaneous speech, negotiation and discussion.
• To make translation a process-based activity, including all students at all stages of the process. This will include giving time to plan, reflect, discuss, review and edit their work, and also encourage meaningful, independent interaction in English.
• To try and provide students with learner-centred, cognitive translation activities to help them notice the differences (and similarities) between L1 and L2 meaning-patterns (in the short term), and of the language system as a whole (in the long term). Hopefully, this will help them acquire the patterns of the L2 and lessen the influence of the L1 on their developing interlanguage.
Aitken, R., 1992, Teaching tenses (Longman)
Bassnett-McGuire, S, 199 I, Translation studies (Routledge)
Duff, A., 1989 Translation (OUP)
Harbord, J., "The use of the mother tongue in the classroom" in ELT Journal, Vol. 46/4 (October 1992)
Hervey, S. & Higgins, I., 1992, Thinking translation (Routledge)
Manko, I., 1998, "Cognitive vs Communicative" in IH Journal, April 1998.
Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S., 1986, Approaches and Methods in language teaching (CUP)
Schmitt, N. & McCarthy, M. (eds.), 1997, Vocabulary (OUP)
Soars, J. & Soars, L., I99 I, Headway Pre-Intermediate (OUP)
Stokes, J., l993/4, "Writing and teaching writing" in IHTT RSA/UCLES DTEFLA Distance Training Programme
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قديم 08-01-2006, 07:23 AM
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تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
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افتراضي _MD_RE: The Translation Profession- Roger Chriss

Translation as a communication process
by Frédéric Houbert
The translator, before being a “writer” as such, is primarily a “message conveyor.” In most cases, translation is to be understood as the process whereby a message expressed in a specific source language is linguistically transformed in order to be understood by readers of the target language. Therefore, no particular adapting work is usually required from the translator, whose work essentially consists of conveying the meaning expressed by the original writer.
Everyone knows, for instance, that legal translation leaves little room for adaptation and rewriting. Similarly, when it comes to translating insurance contracts, style-related concerns are not paramount to the translating process; what the end reader needs is a translated text that is faithful to the source text in meaning, regardless of stylistic prowess from the translator.
Yet, in an number of cases, the translator faces texts which are to be used within a process of “active communication” and the impact of which often depends on the very wording of the original text. In these specific cases, the translator sometimes finds it necessary to reconsider the original wording in order to both better understand the source text (this also sometimes occurs in plain technical texts) and be able to render it in the target language. This is the moment when the translator becomes an active link in the communication chain, the moment when his communication skills are called upon to enhance the effect of the original message.
The translation process here becomes twofold: firstly, the translator needs to detect potential discrepancies and flaws in the original text and understand the meaning they intend to convey. To do this, the translator often needs to contact the writer of the text to be translated (or any other person who is familiar with the contents of the text) in order to clarify the ambiguities he has come across. Secondly, once this first part of the work is over, the translator will undo the syntactic structure of the original text and then formulate the corresponding message in the target language, thus giving the original text added value in terms of both wording and impact. It is important to stress that this work will always be carried out in cooperation with the original writer, so that the translator can make sure the translated message corresponds to the meaning the writer originally intended to convey; remember, the translator is essentially a message conveyor, not an author.
In order to give an example of this value-added part of the translator’s work, let us take the following excerpt, taken from a speech to be delivered by a local official working for a French “Mairie” (i.e., the local authority managing public services in French towns and cities) on the occasion of a visit from British partners as part of a twinning agreement (I could also have chosen an excerpt from a translated advertisement, for instance, in which the rewriting work of the translator is also of the essence). This translating assignment meant more than just converting information from one language into another: it involved paying particular attention to the point of view of the translation user (in this case, the listener speaking the target language), in addition to fully understanding the ideas to be transmitted. This is obviously accounted for by the fact that a speech, just as any other direct communication text, includes an extra dimension as compared to usual informative texts: this dimension could be referred to as the “listener-oriented” aspect of a text. Obviously, the text of a speech not only has a written dimension, a quality shared by all other texts whatever the field, but also an oral dimension. This double dimension obviously needs to be taken into account by the translator in his work: more than is the case with other types of texts, the viewpoint of the reader/listener should be kept in mind at all times.
Let us take an excerpt from the speech in order to better understand the above-described process. One section of the text reads: “Je me dis qu’il est bon aussi de formaliser de temps en temps ces rencontres pour créer une mémoire collective de nos correspondances.” A rough translation in English would give the following result: “I feel it is useful from time to time to give these meetings formal expression in order to create a collective memory of our correspondence.” The latter part of this sentence sounds rather funny and the reader/listener will probably find it difficult to see what it means exactly. This is why I thought the source text needed a couple of clarifications; for one thing, the French “mémoire collective” has a historical dimension to it which I felt was inappropriate in a text meant to convey a positive, future-oriented message. In the mind of most French people, the collocative “mémoire collective” brings about images of the two world wars and of other vivid French historical events such as “Mai 68,” which as you probably know was a period of turmoil marked mainly by students’ demonstrations. Secondly, the French term “correspondances” is inadequately used (after consulting the author of the text, I found that it meant “all of the mutual achievements of the twinning partners since the signing of their agreement”). In short, the overall notion given by the French text is rather blurred, past-oriented, and the author fails to convey his ideas in a persuasive way.
After having analyzed these two inaccuracies with the help of the author, I came up with the following translation: “I feel it is useful from time to time to give these meetings formal expression in order to put on record our mutual achievements for better future cooperation.” This adapted translation is much more suitable for two essential reasons: it clarifies the original message, and consequently gives it greater power while also providing it with a positive dimension. I deliberately chose to add “for better future cooperation” in order to reinforce the cogency of the message, which the French original obviously failed to convey.
By making this choice, I decided to take an active part in the communication process by giving the message an extra dimension which it lacked in the original text: I simply chose to consider my work as a creative process in the best interest of the original message.
Let us look into another example taken from the same text. The first line of the last paragraph begins with the following words: “Nous souhaitons ce renforcement des échanges...,” i.e., literally, “We support this intensifying of exchanges....” When I first read this, I thought, well, who wouldn’t support a positive, fruitful exchange process? In order to avoid obtaining the same awkwardness in English, I therefore chose to stress the idea of support by inserting the adverb “fully,” which again causes the overall impact of the message to be enhanced. The edited translation finally read as follows: “We fully support the idea whereby exchanges should be intensified....”
As these two examples show, the work of the translator often involves a great deal of creativity, as well as a wide range of communication skills. This aspect of translation was also the subject of an article by Steve Dyson which appeared in Traduire (2/96), the journal of the Société Française des Traducteurs (French Society of Translators). Dyson calls this creative process “interlingual copywriting” and defines it as “the necessity, where appropriate, to give effective communication priority over fidelity to the original.”
Professional translators, while giving the above issues a serious thought, should however never forget that most texts to be translated do not require “adaptation” or “reader-oriented rewriting”; a full understanding of the source text and accurate rendering in the target language usually prove enough to give the client satisfaction and make the task of the translator an intellectually gratifying one. As with all other communication skills, creativity is best appreciated and yields the best result when used appropriately.
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