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-   -   الكتابة المسمارية وطريقة قراءة نصوصها وترجمتها (http://www.atinternational.org/forums/showthread.php?t=4204)

عبدالرحمن السليمان 06-24-2008 09:49 PM

الكتابة المسمارية وطريقة قراءة نصوصها وترجمتها
 
<strong><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: center" align="center"><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">الكتابة المسمارية وطريقة قراءة نصوصها وترجمتها<p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: justify"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">دونت النصوص الأكادية والبابلية والآشورية بالكتابة المسمارية وهي كتابة بدأت صورية وانتهت مقطعية. والكتابة المسمارية المقطعية هي كتابة تدون "المساميرُ" فيها مقاطع صوتية مكونة من حرف وصوت مثل /مَ/، /مُ/، /مِ/ الخ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">.</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> وتمر عملية قراءة النصوص المسمارية وترجمتها بأربع مراحل</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> هي: <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">**********</span><p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 36pt 0pt 0cm; direction: rtl; text-indent: -18pt; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">1.** قراءة النص الأكادي </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">ونقحرته مقطعاً مقطعاً؛</span><span dir="ltr"></span><span lang="AR-EG" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><span dir="ltr"></span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 36pt 0pt 0cm; direction: rtl; text-indent: -18pt; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">2.** تجميع المقاطع الصوتية وتكوين الكلمات؛</span><span dir="ltr"></span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><span dir="ltr"></span><font face="Times New Roman"> <p></p></font></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 36pt 0pt 0cm; direction: rtl; text-indent: -18pt; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span dir="rtl"></span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>3.** الترجمة. </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg"><p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 36pt 0pt 0cm; direction: rtl; text-indent: -18pt; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">4. شرح اللغة</span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: center" align="center"><span>مثال: المادة السادسة من قانون حمورابي <br />(نقلت النص المسماري بخط اليد لعدم وجود برنامج طباعة*لكتابته)*<br />*<p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: center" align="center"><img alt="* " src="http://www.wataonline.net/images/abied/Abiedss.jpg" /></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg"></span></p><p></p><p></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span>1. القراءة والنقحرة <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">*</span><p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">شُ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">مْ – </span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">م</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">َ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> أَ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">وِي</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">لُ<sup>م</sup></span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg"> </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">نِج<font size="3">2</font> – جا (= </span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">نَمْكُور</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">)</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">دنجير (= </span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">إل</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">ِّ</span><sup><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">م</span></sup><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">) أُ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">و</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg"> </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">– </span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">إِي</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">- جَل </span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">يِشْ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">رِ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-ِ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">قْ، أَ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">وِي</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">لُ<sup>م</sup> شُ </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">–ُ </span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">يِد</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">ْ-دَ-َق</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">، و شَ شُ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-ُ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">رْقَ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-َ</span><sup><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">م</span></sup><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> إِ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">نَ قَا</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">تِ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">شُ يِمْ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">خُ</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">-</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">رُ يِد</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">ْ-دَ-َق</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> </span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><p><span>2. تجميع المقاطع الصوتية وتكوين الكلمات:<p></p></span></p></span></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">شُمَّ أَوِيلُ<sup>م</sup> نَمْكُور إل</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">ِّ</span><sup><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">م</span></sup><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> وإِيكَلِ<sup>م</sup> يِشْرِقْ، أَوِيلُ<sup>م</sup> شُ يِدَّقْ، </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">أُ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">و شَ شُرْقَ<sup>م</sup> إِنَ قَاتِشُ يِمْخُرُ يِدَّقْ. <p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><p><span>3. الترجمة: <p></p></span></p></span></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">"إذا سرق رجلٌ </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">مُلكاً</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> لإله أو من هيكلٍ، يُقتل ذلك الرجل، ويُقتل كلُّ مَن استلم من يده </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">[المُلكَ] المسروقَ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">". <p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes">*</span></span><span>4. شرح اللغة: <p></p></span></p><div align="right"><table class="MsoNormalTable" dir="rtl" style="border-right: medium none; border-top: medium none; border-left: medium none; border-bottom: medium none; border-collapse: collapse; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-table-dir: bidi; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: justify"><strong><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">الكلمة </span></strong><strong><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></strong></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><strong><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">شرحها</span></strong><strong><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></strong></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">شُمَّ </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 66.6pt 0pt 0cm; direction: rtl; text-indent: -66.6pt; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">حرف شرط. </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">أَوِيلُ<sup>م</sup> </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span dir="rtl"></span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>"رجل"، اسم نكرة مرفوع، مشتق من الجذر "أول". وكان في المجتمع البابلي ثلاث طبقات: طبقة الأحرار (أَوِيلُ<sup>م</sup>)، طبقة الفلاحين (مُشْكِينُ<sup>م</sup>) وطبقة العبيد (وَرْدُ<sup>م</sup> من الجذر "ورد").<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">** </span></span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 3"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">نَمْكُور </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span dir="rtl"></span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>"رزق، مال، متاع". اسم منصوب مضاف، وتحذف الحركة في المضاف في الأكادية. </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 4"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">إلِّ<sup>م</sup> </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span dir="rtl"></span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>"إله"، ويجانس في العربية "إلٌّ" بنفس المعنى. اسم نكرة مضاف إليه</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg"> مجرور وعلامة جره الكسرة الظاهرة على آخره!</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">ولهذه الكلمة ف</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">ي اللغات السامية جذران اثنان هما: <p></p></span></p><p dir="rtl" style="direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><strong><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">الجذر الأول: </span></strong><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">إلٌّ (</span><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">ill-um</span><span dir="rtl"></span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>) الأكادية: إلٌ (=</span><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">ill-um</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>)، العبرية: </span><span lang="HE" style="font-size: 16pt; mso-bidi-language: he"><font face="Times New Roman">אל</font></span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> (=</span><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">īl</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>)، الفينيقية والأوغاريتية: إلّ،* السريانية: </span><span lang="SYR" style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;estrangelo edessa&quot;; mso-bidi-language: syr">ܐܠܐ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> (=</span><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">ellā</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>)، العربية: إلٌّ. (انظر معنى "إلٍّ" في الآية الكريمة: لا يرقبون في مؤمن إلا ولا ذِمة. (10:9) وكذلك معنى قول أبي بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه عندما تُلي عليه بعض من "وحي" مسيلمة الكذاب:*"إن هذا لشيء ما جاء به من إلٍّ"، علماً أن القرآن من عند الله سبحانه وتعالى فليتنبه إلى ذلك). ويؤنث هذا اللفظ في العربية على : إلَّةٌ (=</span><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">illat-un</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>) ومنه جاء اسم الصنم "اللات"). <p></p></span></p><p dir="rtl" style="direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">ومنه اسم مدينة "بابل" بالأكادية: "باب إلّيم" (= </span><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><font face="Times New Roman">Bāb </font></span><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-US" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">Ill-īm</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>) أي "باب الآلهة". ويرد الاسم في العبرية كثيراً في أواخر الأسماء مثل إسماعيل وميكائيل وإسرائيل، وورد في العربية في أسماء مثل "ياليل" و"شرحبيل". <p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><strong><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">الجذر الثاني: "</span></strong><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">إله" (بإضافة الهاء) العبرية: </span><span lang="HE" style="font-size: 16pt; mso-bidi-language: he"><font face="Times New Roman">אלוה</font></span><span lang="HE" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: he"> (=</span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">elōah</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>، وانحراف اللفظ في العبرية مصدره انقلاب ألف المد قبل حروف الحلق إلى </span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">ōa</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>). وهذا اللفظ نادر الورود في التوراة بالمفرد وكثير الورود فيها بصيغة الجمع هكذا: </span><span lang="HE" style="font-size: 16pt; mso-bidi-language: he"><font face="Times New Roman">אלהים</font></span><span lang="HE" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: he"> (=</span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">elōhīm</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span> = إلوهيم. ويرى علماء التوراة في جمع اسم الإله فيها مشكلة لاهوتية عويصة ويرى بعضهم أن ذلك "جمع جلالة" أو </span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">pluralis</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span> </span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">majestatis</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>). الآرامية القديمة: </span><span lang="HE" style="font-size: 16pt; mso-bidi-language: he"><font face="Times New Roman">אלוה</font></span><span lang="HE" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: he"> (=</span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">elāh</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>)، السريانية: </span><span lang="SYR" style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;estrangelo edessa&quot;; mso-bidi-language: syr">ܐܠܗܐ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> (=</span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;times beyrut roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">&THORN;</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'">elāhā</span><span dir="rtl"></span></font><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"><span dir="rtl"></span>) "الإله" والألف نهاية الكلمة للتعريف، العربية: إله/إلاه. </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 5"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 66.6pt 0pt 0cm; direction: rtl; text-indent: -66.6pt; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">وإِيكَلِ<sup>م</sup> </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">الواو حرف عطف وإيكل: "هيكل"، من السومرية أيضاً</span><span dir="ltr"></span><span lang="AR-SA" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><span dir="ltr"></span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span><span dir="rtl"></span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg"><span dir="rtl"></span>(من: إي "بيت" و: جَل<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">* </span>"كبير")</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">، والكلمة نكرة مجرورة لأنها مضاف إليه. </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 6"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 66.6pt 0pt 0cm; direction: rtl; text-indent: -66.6pt; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">يِشْرِقْ </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">يسرق (الجذر "سرق"): فعل تام. </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 7"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">شُ / شَ </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">اسم إشارة "ذلك"/ اسم موصول "الذي". </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 8"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">يِدَّقْ </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">يُقتل (الجذر "دقق") </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 9"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">شُرْقَ<sup>م</sup> </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">اسم نكرة منصوب "المسروق"، "الشيء المسروق"</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">.</span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 10"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">إن </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">مِن </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 11"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">قَاتِشُ </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">اسم مجرور </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">بحرف الجر /</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> إن </span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">/ "من"، </span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">مضاف إلى ضمير. "يَدِهِ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">". قاتُ: "يد"، شُ: ضمير الملك للغائب المفرد. </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 12; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"><td style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 77.15pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="103"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">يِمْخُرُ </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td><td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 348.95pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="465"><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: right"><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;">استلم</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">َ</span><span lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> (الجذر "مخر")</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg">: فعل تام.</span><span lang="AR-EG" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: &quot;traditional arabic&quot;"> </span><span lang="EN-GB" dir="ltr" style="font-size: 18pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'traditional arabic'"><p></p></span></p></td></tr></table></div><p class="MsoNormal" dir="rtl" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: center" align="center"><a href="http://www.wataonline.net/images/abied/Abiedss.jpg"><font face="Times New Roman"><span dir="ltr" style="font-weight: normal"></span></font></a><strong><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 18pt; font-family: 'traditional arabic'; mso-bidi-language: ar-eg"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes"></span></span></strong></p></span></span></strong>

عبدالرحمن السليمان 10-10-2010 12:49 PM

كنت رفعت صورة النص المسماري في الموقع القديم ولما غيرنا الموقع اختفى رابط النص المسماري، إلا أني عثرت اليوم عليه منسوخا - مع نص المقالة - في الرابط التالي:

http://www.mesopot.com/default/index...article&id=215

فهذه بضاعتنا ردت إلينا!



وهلا وغلا!

عبدالرحمن السليمان 10-12-2010 12:48 PM

برنامج حديث للطباعة بالكتابة المسمارية، تطوير البلجيكية سيلفي فا سيفيرين (Sylvie Vanséveren) الباحثة في جامعة بروكسيل الحرة. وكنت اطلعت عليه في موقع مجلة (ميزوبوتاميا):

http://www.hethport.uni-wuerzburg.de/cuneifont/


جميع الأوقات بتوقيت GMT. الساعة الآن 05:18 AM.

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